Aciclovir (ACV), also known as acyclovir, is an antiviral medication. It is primarily used for the treatment of herpes simplex virus infections, chickenpox, and shingles.
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The drug acyclovir is a vital tool that is used in the fight against herpes infection. Almost all people experience the herpes virus during their lifetime. Acyclovir as a treatment for this infection is used in both children and adults.
Even though a herpetic infection is widespread, only a full-time doctor should select its treatment.
Description of acyclovir
Acyclovir belongs to the group of antiviral drugs. It is an artificially created analog of the purine nucleoside. The mechanism of its action is as follows: it suppresses the herpes viruses in the body (almost all its types) and their further reproduction. Acyclovir is used for therapeutic and prophylactic purposes for herpes infections in people of all ages. The trade name of Acyclovir is an international non-patented name, and it does not always coincide with the trade name. The trade name of acyclovir does not need to include the name “acyclovir” itself, although there are also such medicines.
Acyclovir registration number
There are many drugs, the main component of which is acyclovir. Each such medicine has its registration number. Moreover, the registration number depends not only on the manufacturer but also on the form of acyclovir, for example, An ointment for external use called Aciclovir: 004338; Tablets with the name Acyclostadt: 011036/01; Cream for external use Zovirax Duo-Active: 001674 and others. Any registration number of interest can be obtained from the State Register of Medicinal Products, which is available to every Internet user.
Dosage forms of acyclovir
It is produced in different dosage forms. There are several forms of acyclovir, each of which has its indications for admission. The following dosage forms of acyclovir have been developed and are being successfully used:
- Tablets in different dosages (200 mg, 400 mg, 500 mg);
- Eye ointment 3%;
- Cream and ointment for external use of 5%;
Lyophilisate for preparation of the solution for introduction into a vein of 250 mg in a bottle.
Usually, tablets are white or almost white, and their shape is oval. There are risks in the middle of the pills so that they can be broken. Available in blisters with a different number of pieces. Blisters packed in a box. Ointments, creams for external use and eye ointment is white or yellowish. They are packaged in an aluminum tube or a dark glass jar, and then the medicine is placed in a cardboard box. Lyophilisate is a powder in a vial, which must be dissolved before use in one of the infusion solutions. The bottle is placed in a box of cardboard.
The composition of acyclovir
The structure of acyclovir and its containing preparations include the main active ingredient and additional components. The central (active part) in the form of acyclovir is the antiviral substance, that is, acyclovir itself. Other (auxiliary) elements in the composition of acyclovir are needed to give the drug a particular dosage form and reliably preserve its properties. Additional components (depending on the type) include calcium stearate, povidone, talc, colloidal silicon dioxide, crospovidone, microcrystalline cellulose, petroleum jelly, paraffin wax, emulsion wax, and others.
Pharmacological properties of acyclovir
Pharmacological properties of acyclovir are based on the fact that it inhibits human herpes viruses. These properties of acyclovir are manifested concerning the following types of infection: herpes simplex type 1 and 2, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, chicken pox, and shingles. The most significant effect is observed concerning the herpes virus type 1. The herpes virus type 2, the chickenpox virus, follows it. The least unusual antiherpetic activity is noted against Epstein-Barr viruses and cytomegalovirus (CMV). Acyclovir is inserted into the chain of viral DNA in such a way that this chain is terminated. This leads to the fact that the replication of the DNA of the virus stops.
Acyclovir is incompletely caught up in the digestive system. The convergence of a substance in the cerebrospinal liquid is equivalent to a large portion of that in the circulatory system. It is gotten from the human body practically unaltered. The kidneys discharge the vast majority of the medication. Acyclovir connected to healthy skin isn’t assimilated into the blood. On the off chance that there are bruises on the surface, at that point, its halfway retention is noted.
Signs for the utilization of acyclovir Indications for the medication ought to be resolved just by a specialist. It is difficult to participate in self-drug, as it is conceivable to pick the wrong prescription and select the base portion. Likewise, regularly the patient is mixed up with the conclusion, regardless of whether he doesn’t question that he is correct. Signs for the utilization of the medication acyclovir change contingent upon the type of the medication in which the medicine is discharged. The first signs for the medication acyclovir are the accompanying:
- Treatment of contaminations of the skin and mucous layers, which are brought about by the herpes simplex infections (both essential and intermittent genital);
- Preventive objectives against illness repeat in individuals with flawless insusceptibility and immunodeficiency;
- Treatment of viruses, for example, chickenpox and shingles;
- Treatment of herpetic sores in offspring of the primary month of life (counting intrauterine disease);
- The aversion of cytomegalovirus contamination in patients experiencing bone marrow transplantation;
- Treatment of herpetic corneal injuries (for ophthalmic salve). Contraindications to the utilization of acyclovir
Contraindications to the usage of the medication acyclovir rely upon the structure and portion of the medication. Be that as it may, there are general contraindications to the use of the medication acyclovir: extreme touchiness to the present or some other segment of the drug. Kids under three years old are contraindicated for acyclovir tablets. Before using the drug in any dosage form, you must carefully read the abstract and contraindications to its use.
The use of acyclovir during pregnancy
Is it possible to use acyclovir during pregnancy? Expectant mothers often face the question of the use of acyclovir in pregnancy because herpes infection or its aggravation is not uncommon in this period. This is due to a decrease in immunity during childbirth. Accordingly, the question of treatment arises.
According to the instructions, the use of the drug during pregnancy is quite acceptable, but with caution. That is, treatment is fair in that situation when the benefits of therapy outweigh the risk of taking an antiviral medication. This applies to all dosage forms. Currently, there is no evidence that acyclovir affects female fertility. But research has been conducted on whether acyclovir is safe during pregnancy. There is no evidence that children with developmental disabilities are more likely to be born to mothers who took acyclovir. This argues in favor of the relative safety of acyclovir during pregnancy, but until the conclusions are made early, research continues. A study was conducted on 20 volunteers, who studied the effect of acyclovir on fertility in men. Volunteers took acyclovir daily for six months. However, no adverse effect of the drug on motility, morphology and the number of male germ cells was detected.
Use of acyclovir during the breastfeeding period
Is the utilization of acyclovir allowed amid the breastfeeding time frame? The medication infiltrates bosom milk. Concentrates on this issue demonstrated that on the off chance that you take acyclovir five times each day at a portion of 200 mg, it would be resolved in high focus in human milk. In this manner, your child will get 0.3 mg/kg/day of acyclovir with bosom milk. The utilization of acyclovir amid breastfeeding isn’t contraindicated. However, it ought to be done just as persevere signs after a medicinal examination and a suitable arrangement. If amid the time of breastfeeding unfriendly consequences for the piece of the tyke are noted, it will be important to advise the specialist and choose whether to change the treatment or incidentally quit breastfeeding.
The utilization of acyclovir relies upon the measurement structure utilized by the patient. Tablets are taken orally, without biting. It is prescribed to drink a lot of prescription with water (at least a glass).
Treatment and cream are connected to the influenced skin with a thin layer five times each day. Lyophilisate in the readiness of mixtures for the intravenous organization should initially be weakened to the ideal focus. The tenets for the improvement of the arrangement are portrayed in the guidelines for the advancement.
Eye treatment lay a piece of 1 cm in the lower eyelid five times each day following 4 hours. Treatment keeps going until recuperation, in addition to three more days.
Portions of acyclovir
A medicinal, right hand or specialist gets parts of acyclovir after a discussion. Pieces of acyclovir drugs rely upon the age of the patient and his conclusion. Treatment of irresistible ailments brought about by introduction to herpes simplex infections (HSV) in kids from three years old and grown-ups: If treatment of irresistible maladies brought about by HSV is required, at that point tablets in a measurements of 200 mg are tanked at regular intervals (around evening time a break is taken). In only one day, the prescription must be given in the demonstrated dose multiple times. A standard course of treatment keeps going five days, yet in some cases, it is delayed (if the patient has extreme essential contamination). If the patient has an exceptionally articulated immunodeficiency, or the ingestion limit in the stomach related tract is weakened, at that point the medication can be given in a more significant portion (400 mg 5 times each day).